Although Pringga Jurang Utara does not suffer from water shortage, it doesn’t mean that this village is free of open defecation. With the hard work of the village administrator and the cadre, currently the village still has to deal with the bulk of waste in public space.
Just like other villages, Pringga Jurang Utara initially had poor sanitation problem as well. “When we see the water stream, we are ashamed, feces are floating there,” Hasbialloh, the Village Head, said, memorizing the period of early 2013. At that time, program of SHAW promoting STBM through YMP only started in the village located at the slope of Mount Rinjani. Pringgajurang Utara is a village in Kecamatan Montong Gading that – it can be said – has no problem with water, although in the last two months no rain drops. At least, it was what Hasbialloh, the Village Head said, and was agreed by Darsi and Riza Umami, Posyandu Cadres. While in lack of water in other villages resulted in open defecation in garden or river, here the abundant water triggers people to defecate in the water stream.
“Well…they are accustomed and are convenient to defecate in the water stream because the dirt can disappear directly,” Dasri said. According to her, some village residents feel disgusted when they have to defecate in toilet. The inherited practice of defecation has become a serous challenge for the implementation of STBM.
Beside habit, limited extent of land for toilet development is another problem. Dasri said, in one gubuk or kampung, a house may only be 3×4 meter square and thus it is difficult to build toilet. Hasbialloh admitted that initially he was asked by Puskesmas Montong Gading to realistically target only 70%. “But I insisted to reach the target of 100%,” the village head said.
Increasing Access to Sanitation, Knowledge and Motivation
To drive changes, some strategies are developed. After triggering, Desa sent a village resident to take part in closet production training for Sanitation marketing facilitated by YMP. Village administrator allocated Rp11,400,000 from ADD to provide closets and toilets, particularly for 360 poor households. To facilitate coordination between puskesmas, YMP and cadres, upon YMP request, the village has chosen and appointed village facilitators to be closet craftsman- accompanied the previous craftsmen.
That’s not all. YMP and Puskesmas Montong Gading facilitated all Posyandu Cadres of Pringga Jurang Utara and the village head to participate in motivation training.
“So far, Health Agency only provide science and capacity building while ignoring the importance of motivation, never,” said Bayuniarsih alias Yuyun, Sanitarian in Puskesmas Montong Gading. Training in motivation is absolutely need so that cadres can be more effective in dealing with the sanitation problems of village residents.
“Before the training, cadres always contacted me when they have problem dealing with village residents. After the training, they work more independently,” said Yuyun. In general, becoming a cadre needs self confidence. Individuals who were initially passive and shy will be triggered to become self confident after becoming a cadre like Riza Umami.
“After becoming a cadre, I become more self confident,” said Riza Umami, a cadre. A number of 40 Posyandu Cadres in this village play an important role in behavior change because they intensively have direct interaction with village residents. In the hands of the cadres, knowledge of STBM can be extended to village residents. In general cadres have been familiar with the principles of sanitation that they learned from program of Sanitary and Hygienic Behavior even before YMP came and introduced STBM.
Another approach to motivate behavior change is cross verification. Internally, verification is made across dusuns in a village. After this internal verification, verification across 8 villages in Kecamatan Montong Gading was carried out.
After driving behavior change in the village, Desa Pringga Jurang Utara currently has to deal with another sanitation challenge, that is the garbage produced by the existence of weekly market. The market comprises vendors and sellers from other villages, and every week the market is visited by buyers from different villages, and certainly including those from Desa Pringga Jurang Utara.
“We have reminded them that the existence of the market is not in line with the regulation because it occupies the road,” said Hasbialloh. Although acknowledging that the market is illegal, the village administrator is unable to stop it because it satisfies the need of the local village residents. “The market is beneficial for the village residents who live in remote areas,” said Darsi. Pringga Jurang Utara does not have its own market because it does not have any adequate extent of land.
“When the transaction is over, please collect the plastic garbage and burn it. Unless they obey, I will have to close it,” Hasbialloh imitated his own threat.
According to Hasbialloh, the vendors are only obedient when they are monitored and supervised. When the village administrators leave, garbage littered.
Unfortunately Desa does not have any choice because the village residents also needs market. So far, access to the nearest market is to Kotaraja and Montong Betok, which for some village residents in remote areas are too far to access. The only way is that the village administrator has to compromise and consistently monitor the “overflow” market.
Intensive Approach has to be Consistently Taken
To sustain sanitary and hygienic condition, Hasbialloh and the cadre have to use intensive approach to village residents. “Never be like previous programs that stop as information without any intensive approach to village residents,” said Hasbialloh. Cadres also assume that the apparatus of village and puskesmas should still continue to accompany cadres in the monitoring and socialization.
“Although we’ve been able to coordinate ourselves, don’t leave us alone! It would be better if YMP, village administrator, and Puskesmas are consistently involved. When only the cadres say, it will not be recognized,” said a cadre, Dasri.
Re ecting what is happening in Pringga Jurang Utara to the change scheme of Introducing J. Devine’s SaniFOAM, it appears that the village has opened access to sanitation through the availability of sanitary closet (Opportunity Determinant). Support from village administrator in the form of fund and activity facilitation has opened up the access of village residents to sanitation, particularly in the development of sanitary toilet.
Closet subsidy for poor people has excited the motivation of the people who are economically poor and nd it di cult to prioritize toilet development (Motivation Determinant). Routine visit by the cadre accompanied by sanitarian to each house strengthen the establishment of social norms concerning sanitary and hygienic behavior.
With regard to Ability Determinant, YMP has also facilitated the increase of knowledge on sanitation through training for closet craftsmanship. Therefore, sanitary and cheap closets can be produced. Not only have the cadres play a role in the increase of sanitation knowledge among village residents, but also encourage the implementation. Therefore, the cadres were also trained in motivation so that they can be more self con dent and motivated in these social activities.
Accordingly, it is expected that they can be more e ectively work as agents of change. However, the cadres think that social support from YMP, puskesmas and the village will contribute much to the increase of Ability Determinant or e ectiveness of their work in addition to motivation.
Article by SIMAVI. Courtesy Photo, SIMAVI.