Throwback, Lesson Learned STBM in Sikur Barat

The success of Sikur Barat in changing the behavior of the people is inseparable from the hard work of the cadres. The newly established village is really motivated to change.

The name of Sikur Barat refers to a group of female cadres of posyandu who appear with the pin of “5 Pillar STBM” and are predominantly in white cloth. Some of them wear batik uniform with similar head cover and white skirts, some others wear white blouse. It is apparent that their appearance at that time (May 2015), represents the sense of togetherness.

Becoming a Cadre is not Only One Aspect

Togetherness is important indeed. This is particularly true for posyandu cadres who have to deal with complex works. “Becoming a cadre requires to know many aspects rather than a single aspect. Such work as family data and family-planning collection require us to interact directly with the people,” Jakranah said. She has worked as a cadre for teens of years. With STBM, she has to learn more aspects and develop them. With different response from the people, she has to be prepared with the more challenging works. Moreover, in less than 2 years, the targeted change through 5 Pillars of STBM has to be met. This is the main challenge of the STBM team in Desa Sikur Barat – particularly for the posyandu cadres.

A cadre has to have extensive knowledge to educate people and solve health problem. Desa Sikur Barat with the population of 1,701 households is a dense area – and 41.3% of them are classified into Poor Families1 – This condition creates challenges for the cadres who want to realize 5-pillar sanitation. According to them, some people have not developed toilets because they do not have any land or money. However, some of them can build toilets although they have to borrow money from others. Good examples are Salmin and Muhammad Husen (see the photo overleaf).

Motivation from Close Relative and Public Figure

One of the strategies implemented by YMP is employing village facilitators for villages. Village facilitators help the cadres in promoting 5 pillars of sanitation. According to the cadres, village facilitator in Sikur Barat, As’ari, is very helpful when the cadres find problems in the field. The cadres are involved in the process of village facilitator selection.

“Yes, we are involved in the coordination meeting with the village head to determine who are suitable to be involved by the cadres to visit village residents. Pak As’ari is also motivated to be our mentor. In case cadre has complaints in dusun, Pak As’ari will help. Although he is very busy, he will get involved directly,” Nurhasanah, chief of Posyandu Cadre who happens to be a teacher of kindergarten added.

Nurhasanah also admitted that the primary support derives from her husband who is a religious figure in Desa Sikur Barat. She told how her husband gave her advice when she joined the program arranged by YMP in Desa Sajang, in the area of Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani. “When I was about to leave, my husband advised me; ‘Nur, I want you not to expect anything. You work for the village’. That has made me motivated,” Nurhasanah added. The moral support received by the chief has later had positive impact on the members.

Excitement of the Newly Establish Village

Five years ago, exactly in 2011, Sikur Barat was a part of Desa Sikur. Sikur Barat was definitively established as a new village since 2012. Unequal access to development has been thought to become the driver of the new village establishment. “After established, each proposed program is welcome with pleasure, although they do not offer money, such as this STBM,” Haji Abdul Halim, one of the Tuan Gurus in Desa Sikur Barat added. The positive attitude has strengthened the role in the creation of positive sanitation norms through his religious preaching.

Motivation to develop the village has also excited real support from the Head of Desa Sikur Barat, H.S. Ahmad Ibrahim, S.Ag. To support the acceleration of achievement of 5-pillar sanitation, he on behalf of the village initiated to borrow money from several sources, including from the mosque, at amount of Rp13 million to subsidize the development of toilet for some poor people around the mosque, while expecting the cash from the ADD.“We were too excited to develop the village”, he asserted.

Why Posyandu Cadres are Important and Strategic in STBM?

The cadres involved in STBM of Desa Sikur Barat are predominantly cadres of Posyandu. They work in the eld of health service voluntarily.

Posyandu is a Community-Based Health Service managed from, by, and for the people. Posyandu is intended to empower the people and provide ease access to primary health care (source: Indonesian Ministry of Health, 2012).

The presence of SHAW that promote STBM through the Health Ministry, automatically involves the cadres who are familiar with information dissemination and mobilizing people to have sanitary and hygiene behavior.

Although STBM puts extra work load for cadres, this program also mobilize support and involvement of public gure and village administrator. While previously Posyandu Cadre visited the eld themselves, currently they may visit together with public gure, religious gure, village administrator, and also village facilitator, in attempt to reach the target of 5-pillar sanitation. With more extensive collaboration, changes will be easily made.


Opportunity Determinant, Ability Determinant, and Motivation Determinant have driven the changes in Desa Sikur Barat. This has been also possible with the full support from the actors in the village, particularly Posyandu Cadre. The cadres work routinely – through formal and informal approaches – to ensure the application of the norms by the village residents.

Therefore, the knowledge of the cadre helps village residents to solve problems, for example in determining the location of septic tank of toilet in the limited extent of land.

Social support for the cadres – from religious leaders, village facilitators, and village apparatus – strengthens their motivation to work. Motivation to change also derives from the timing – that is STBM entered in 2012, not long after Sikur Barat was de nitively established as a village. As a newly established village, the village has to positively respond any development program. Moreover, the development program is very bene cial for the new village like Sikur Barat.

Support from the head of the village has contributed much to the behavior change. Borrowing money from the mosque to provide toilets for the village residents has increased the access although the facilities are limited; it seems that it has strengthened the norms that ensure the termination of open defecation.


Article by SIMAVI. Courtesy Photo, SIMAVI.

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